The Washers Commonly Used in Aircraft
A typical aircraft is composed of innumerous fasteners and hardware pieces, all of which work together to maintain a secure and exploitable assembly for the means of undertaking flight operations. Across the millions of fasteners that are placed across a fuselage, many come in the form of washers. While varying in type to accommodate different requirements and conditions, a conventional washer generally consists of a thin plate with a hole in its center. Generally, similar factors are enforced alongside a threaded fastener for the means of distributing loads, though they may also act as a spacer, wear pad, spring, locking device, vibration reducer, or preload indicating device. Due to their common perpetration in aircraft and the important places that they serve, it can be useful to have a general understanding of what types are frequently set up in aircraft assemblies.
Typically, plain and lock washers are used in aircraft structures. Plain washers are made of carbon steel and are used for nuts to cover the essence from being scratched when the nut is turned down. The plain washers also may be used as a shim under a nut to compensate for a bolt that’s slightly long. Plain washers come in two sizes AN 960- 616, which is the regular washer that fits a3/8 bolt, and AN960-6161, which is the light series that fits the same bolt. AN stage for Army- Navy. Lock washers come in varied designs. These are used to hold the nut under pressure on a bolt to help it turning. The most common of these is the Split Lock washer (AN 935) made of heavy spring steel, split, and twisted. AN 936- Lock washer made of important thinner spring steel, comes in two strains. One has teeth cut into the inner circumference; the other has its teeth in the external circumference.
The plain washer is the utmost essential type, and the ones used for aircraft construction will frequently be AN960 and AN970 variations. Generally, these washer factors are placed under hex nuts, offering a smooth bearing outside. Plain washers also act as a shim, allowing for the optimal bolt and nut grip length to be achieved. also, they can help acclimate the positioning of castellated nuts so that they sit rightly with drilled cavalier pin holes.
When plain washers are used under bolt heads or alongside nuts on an aluminum alloy or magnesium structure, aluminum and aluminum alloy materials are the most optimal washer materials. By pairing an aluminum or aluminum alloy washer with a nut placed on a different metal, corrosion can be avoided. For rustic structures, the AN970 steel flat washer is known for supplying an increased bearing area over other steel flat washer parts.
A lock washer, or washer lock element, is a technical washer that can help the loosening of an element or fastener through the use of its shape or features. For aircraft operations, the AN935 and AN936 variations are the most common, and they both may be used alongside screws or bolts when a tone- locking or castellated nut is unfit to be reckoned on. To help the loosening of fasteners, lock washers similar as the AN935 variation take advantage of their spring action to increase conflict. It’s important that lock washers are always used in the correct cases. As similar, they should nothing be paired with a screw that’s regularly removed, placed where washers are exposed to blow or sharp accoutrements, installed in an area failure can make hazards, or enforced in a way that causes the washer to soak shells.
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